市场调查报告书

学习管理系统(LMS)- 全球市场预测(2017年~2026年)

Learning Management System (LMS) - Global Market Outlook (2017-2026)

出版商 Stratistics Market Research Consulting 商品编码 907670
出版日期 内容资讯 英文 154 Pages
商品交期: 2-3个工作天内
价格
学习管理系统(LMS)- 全球市场预测(2017年~2026年) Learning Management System (LMS) - Global Market Outlook (2017-2026)
出版日期: 2019年08月19日内容资讯: 英文 154 Pages
简介

全球学习管理系统(LMS)市场在2017年估算为76亿5,000万美元,在预测期间内预计将以20.3%的年复合成长率发展,至2026年成长到403亿6,000万美元的规模。数位学习的成果扩大,学习管理系统(LMS)的普及相关举措,数位学习的采用的增加等成为这个市场主要成长要素。

本报告提供全球学习管理系统(LMS)市场调查,市场概要,各零组件、交付方式、部署模型、模组、生态系统、用途、终端用户、地区的市场规模的变化与预测,市场成长要素及阻碍因素分析,竞争情形,主要企业的简介等全面性资讯。

目录

第1章 摘要整理

第2章 序文

第3章 市场趋势分析

  • 简介
  • 成长要素
  • 阻碍因素
  • 市场机会
  • 威胁
  • 用途分析
  • 终端用户分析
  • 新兴市场
  • 未来市场方案

第4章 波特的五力分析

  • 买方议价能力
  • 供给企业谈判力
  • 新加入业者的威胁
  • 替代品的威胁
  • 竞争企业间的敌对关系

第5章 全球学习管理系统(LMS)市场:各零件

  • 简介
  • 服务
    • 支援服务
    • 实行服务
    • 咨询服务
  • 解决方案

第6章 全球学习管理系统(LMS)市场:各交付模式

  • 简介
  • 集合教育(ILT)
  • 远距教学
  • 混合型学习

第7章 全球学习管理系统(LMS)市场:各部署模型

  • 简介
  • SaaS(Software as a Service)
  • 专属
  • 开放原始码
  • 内部部署
  • 云端

第8章 全球学习管理系统(LMS)市场:各模组

  • 简介
  • 虚拟教室
  • 用户管理
  • 人力资源管理
  • 学生管理
  • 进展管理
  • 效能管理
  • 线上讲座
  • 行动、社群学习
  • 学习者管理
  • 相互作用、整合技术
  • 内容传送、管理
  • 通讯与合作
  • 评估、试验
  • 指导
  • 其他

第9章 全球学习管理系统(LMS)市场:各生态系统

  • 简介
  • 个别指导服务
  • 实验机关
  • 软体供应商
  • 监督服务
  • 付款闸道器供应商
  • 代管服务供应商
  • 内容提供商
  • 内容传递网路
  • 主机代管服务
  • 认证工具供应商
  • 认证供应商
  • 设备供应商
  • 其他

第10章 全球学习管理系统(LMS)市场:各用途

  • 简介
  • 虚拟教练训练
  • 技术训练
  • 远距教学

第11章 全球学习管理系统(LMS)市场:各终端用户

  • 简介
  • 财团
    • 通讯
    • 软体、科技
    • 中小企业
    • 自然科学研究
    • 零售
    • 民间
    • 医药品
    • 制造
    • 大企业
    • IT
    • 饭店
    • 高等教育
    • 医疗保健
    • 媒体、娱乐
    • 咨询
    • 生物医药品
    • 银行、金融服务、保险
    • 政府、防卫
    • 其他
  • 教育
    • 高等教育
    • 学前教育、初等中等教育(K-12)

第12章 全球学习管理系统(LMS)市场:各地区

  • 简介
  • 北美
    • 美国
    • 加拿大
    • 墨西哥
  • 欧洲
    • 德国
    • 英国
    • 义大利
    • 法国
    • 西班牙
    • 其他
  • 亚太地区
    • 日本
    • 中国
    • 印度
    • 澳洲
    • 纽西兰
    • 韩国
    • 其他
  • 南美
    • 阿根廷
    • 巴西
    • 智利
    • 其他
  • 中东、非洲
    • 沙乌地阿拉伯
    • 阿拉伯联合大公国
    • 卡达
    • 南非
    • 其他

第13章 主要发展趋势

  • 契约、伙伴关系、合作、合资企业
  • 收购、合并
  • 新产品的销售
  • 事业扩张
  • 其他主要策略

第14章 企业简介

  • IBM
  • Oracle
  • SAP
  • Pearson
  • Mcgraw-Hill
  • Adobe Systems
  • Blackboard
  • MPS
  • Sumtotal Systems
  • Schoology
  • Saba Software
  • Ispring Solutions
  • Instructure
  • Epignosis
  • Docebo
  • D2l Corporation
  • Crossknowledge
  • Cornerstone Ondemand, Inc.
  • Absorb Software
  • (G-Cube)
目录

According to Stratistics MRC, the Global Learning Management System (LMS) market is accounted for $7.65 billion in 2017 and is expected to reach $40.36 billion by 2026 growing at a CAGR of 20.3% during the forecast period. Some of the key factors such as growing consequence of elearning in commercial and academic setups, wide administration initiative for expansion of LMS, and rising implementation of digital learning which are propelling the growth of the market. However, less incentive and commitment to accept LMS solutions which is hampering the growth of the market.

Learning management system is software appliances which provide infrastructure, tools and context to provide e-learning and guidance solution to the organization and its learner. The learning management system has risen rapidly since the previous years and is estimated to be the rising technology in software business. Mainly academy these days is providing internet access to their students, and frequently there are internet cafes within an on foot distance from the university campus, so that the student can make use of learning management system.

Based on the Deployment Model, The cloud-based deployment model is likely to lead the market over the forecast period. Company are switching to cloud-based model so that they can focus more on their core competencies and worry less about their resources becoming outdated with quick growing technology. Furthermore, cost effectiveness is another motivation that adds importance to cloud-based deployment model.

By Geography, North America has shown quick recognition of latest learning pedagogies and this has additional pressed the LMS market for this region. In this region, enterprise is now changing to mLearning for enhanced results and expediency of use. Due to the superior technology there in the region, students are digitally more associated and responsive of eLearning and interactive course contented.

Some of the key players profiled in the Learning Management System (LMS) Market include IBM, Oracle, SAP, Pearson, Mcgraw-Hill, Adobe Systems, Blackboard, MPS, Sumtotal Systems, Schoology, Saba Software, Ispring Solutions, Instructure, Epignosis, Docebo, D2l Corporation, Crossknowledge, Cornerstone Ondemand, Inc., Absorb Software, and (G-Cube).

Components Covered:

  • Services
  • Solution

Delivery Modes Covered:

  • Instructor-Led Training
  • Distance Learning
  • Blended Learning

Deployment Models Covered:

  • Software as a Service (SaaS)
  • Proprietary
  • Open-Source
  • On-Premises
  • Cloud

Modules Covered:

  • Virtual Classrooms
  • User Management
  • Talent Management
  • Student Management
  • Progress Management
  • Performance Management
  • Online Courses
  • Mobile and Social Learning
  • Learner Management
  • Interaction and Integration Technologies
  • Content Delivery and Management
  • Comprises Content Management
  • Communication & Collaboration
  • Assessment and Testing
  • Aministration
  • Other Modules

Ecosystems Covered:

  • Tutoring Services
  • Testing Organizations
  • Software Providers
  • Proctoring Services
  • Payment Gateway Providers
  • Hosting Service Providers
  • Content Providers
  • Content Delivery Networks
  • Colocation Services
  • Authoring Tool Providers
  • Accreditation Providers
  • Equipment Providers
  • Other Ecosystems

Applications Covered:

  • Virtual Instructor Training
  • Technology Training
  • Distance Learning

End Users Covered:

  • Corporate
  • Academic

Regions Covered:

  • North America
    • US
    • Canada
    • Mexico
  • Europe
    • Germany
    • UK
    • Italy
    • France
    • Spain
    • Rest of Europe
  • Asia Pacific
    • Japan
    • China
    • India
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
    • South Korea
    • Rest of Asia Pacific
  • South America
    • Argentina
    • Brazil
    • Chile
    • Rest of South America
  • Middle East & Africa
    • Saudi Arabia
    • UAE
    • Qatar
    • South Africa
    • Rest of Middle East & Africa

What our report offers:

  • Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments
  • Market share analysis of the top industry players
  • Strategic recommendations for the new entrants
  • Market forecasts for a minimum of 9 years of all the mentioned segments, sub-segments, and the regional markets
  • Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations)
  • Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations
  • Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends
  • Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments
  • Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements

Free Customization Offerings:

All the customers of this report will be entitled to receive one of the following free customization options:

  • Company Profiling
    • Comprehensive profiling of additional market players (up to 3)
    • SWOT Analysis of key players (up to 3)
  • Regional Segmentation
    • Market estimations, Forecasts and CAGR of any prominent country as per the clients interest (Note: Depends of feasibility check)
  • Competitive Benchmarking

Benchmarking of key players based on product portfolio, geographical presence, and strategic alliances

Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary

2 Preface

  • 2.1 Abstract
  • 2.2 Stake Holders
  • 2.3 Research Scope
  • 2.4 Research Methodology
    • 2.4.1 Data Mining
    • 2.4.2 Data Analysis
    • 2.4.3 Data Validation
    • 2.4.4 Research Approach
  • 2.5 Research Sources
    • 2.5.1 Primary Research Sources
    • 2.5.2 Secondary Research Sources
    • 2.5.3 Assumptions

3 Market Trend Analysis

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Drivers
  • 3.3 Restraints
  • 3.4 Opportunities
  • 3.5 Threats
  • 3.6 Application Analysis
  • 3.7 End User Analysis
  • 3.8 Emerging Markets
  • 3.9 Futuristic Market Scenario

4 Porters Five Force Analysis

  • 4.1 Bargaining power of suppliers
  • 4.2 Bargaining power of buyers
  • 4.3 Threat of substitutes
  • 4.4 Threat of new entrants
  • 4.5 Competitive rivalry

5 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market, By Component

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Services
    • 5.2.1 Support Services
    • 5.2.2 Implementation Services
    • 5.2.3 Consulting Services
  • 5.3 Solution

6 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market, By Delivery Mode

  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Instructor-Led Training
  • 6.3 Distance Learning
  • 6.4 Blended Learning

7 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market, By Deployment Model

  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Software as a Service (SaaS)
  • 7.3 Proprietary
  • 7.4 Open-Source
  • 7.5 On-Premises
  • 7.6 Cloud

8 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market, By Module

  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Virtual Classrooms
  • 8.3 User Management
  • 8.4 Talent Management
  • 8.5 Student Management
  • 8.6 Progress Management
  • 8.7 Performance Management
  • 8.8 Online Courses
  • 8.9 Mobile and Social Learning
  • 8.10 Learner Management
  • 8.11 Interaction and Integration Technologies
  • 8.12 Content Delivery and Management
  • 8.13 Comprises Content Management
  • 8.14 Communication & Collaboration
  • 8.15 Assessment and Testing
  • 8.16 Aministration
  • 8.17 Other Modules

9 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market, By Ecosystem

  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Tutoring Services
  • 9.3 Testing Organizations
  • 9.4 Software Providers
  • 9.5 Proctoring Services
  • 9.6 Payment Gateway Providers
  • 9.7 Hosting Service Providers
  • 9.8 Content Providers
  • 9.9 Content Delivery Networks
  • 9.10 Colocation Services
  • 9.11 Authoring Tool Providers
  • 9.12 Accreditation Providers
  • 9.13 Equipment Providers
    • 9.13.1 Enclosures
    • 9.13.2 Professional Development Units (PDUs)
    • 9.13.3 Servers
  • 9.14 Other Ecosystems

10 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market, By Application

  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Virtual Instructor Training
  • 10.3 Technology Training
  • 10.4 Distance Learning

11 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market, By End User

  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Corporate
    • 11.2.1 Telecommunications
    • 11.2.3 Software and Technology
    • 11.2.4 Small and Medium Enterprises (SME)
    • 11.2.5 Scientific Research
    • 11.2.6 Retail
    • 11.2.7 Private Organizations
    • 11.2.8 Pharmaceuticals
    • 11.2.9 Manufacturing
    • 11.2.10 Large Enterprises
    • 11.2.11 IT
    • 11.2.12 Hospitality
    • 11.2.13 Higher Education
    • 11.2.14 Healthcare
    • 11.2.15 Entertainment and Media
    • 11.2.16 Consulting
    • 11.2.17 Biopharma
    • 11.2.18 Banking, Financial Services and Insurance (BFSI)
    • 11.2.19 Government and Defense
      • 11.2.19.1 Transport
      • 11.2.19.2 Utilities
    • 11.2.20 Other Corportes
  • 11.3 Academic
    • 11.3.1 Higher Education
      • 11.3.1.1 Colleges
      • 11.3.1.2 Universities
    • 11.3.2 K-12
      • 11.3.2.1 Kindergarten
      • 11.3.2.2 Primary Education
      • 11.3.2.3 Secondary Education

12 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market, By Geography

  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 North America
    • 12.2.1 US
    • 12.2.2 Canada
    • 12.2.3 Mexico
  • 12.3 Europe
    • 12.3.1 Germany
    • 12.3.2 UK
    • 12.3.3 Italy
    • 12.3.4 France
    • 12.3.5 Spain
    • 12.3.6 Rest of Europe
  • 12.4 Asia Pacific
    • 12.4.1 Japan
    • 12.4.2 China
    • 12.4.3 India
    • 12.4.4 Australia
    • 12.4.5 New Zealand
    • 12.4.6 South Korea
    • 12.4.7 Rest of Asia Pacific
  • 12.5 South America
    • 12.5.1 Argentina
    • 12.5.2 Brazil
    • 12.5.3 Chile
    • 12.5.4 Rest of South America
  • 12.6 Middle East & Africa
    • 12.6.1 Saudi Arabia
    • 12.6.2 UAE
    • 12.6.3 Qatar
    • 12.6.4 South Africa
    • 12.6.5 Rest of Middle East & Africa

13 Key Developments

  • 13.1 Agreements, Partnerships, Collaborations and Joint Ventures
  • 13.2 Acquisitions & Mergers
  • 13.3 New Product Launch
  • 13.4 Expansions
  • 13.5 Other Key Strategies

14 Company Profiling

  • 14.1 IBM
  • 14.2 Oracle
  • 14.3 SAP
  • 14.4 Pearson
  • 14.5 Mcgraw-Hill
  • 14.6 Adobe Systems
  • 14.7 Blackboard
  • 14.8 MPS
  • 14.9 Sumtotal Systems
  • 14.10 Schoology
  • 14.11 Saba Software
  • 14.12 Ispring Solutions
  • 14.13 Instructure
  • 14.14 Epignosis
  • 14.15 Docebo
  • 14.16 D2l Corporation
  • 14.17 Crossknowledge
  • 14.18 Cornerstone Ondemand, Inc.
  • 14.19 Absorb Software
  • 14.20 (G-Cube)

List of Tables

  • 1 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Region (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 2 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Component (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 3 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Services (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 4 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Support Services (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 5 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Implementation Services (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 6 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Consulting Services (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 7 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Solution (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 8 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Delivery Mode (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 9 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Instructor-Led Training (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 10 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Distance Learning (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 11 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Blended Learning (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 12 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Deployment Model (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 13 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Software as a Service (SaaS) (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 14 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Proprietary (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 15 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Open-Source (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 16 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By On-Premises (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 17 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Cloud (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 18 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Module (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 19 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Virtual Classrooms (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 20 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By User Management (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 21 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Talent Management (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 22 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Student Management (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 23 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Progress Management (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 24 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Performance Management (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 25 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Online Courses (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 26 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Mobile and Social Learning (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 27 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Learner Management (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 28 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Interaction and Integration Technologies (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 29 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Content Delivery and Management (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 30 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Comprises Content Management (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 31 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Communication & Collaboration (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 32 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Assessment and Testing (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 33 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Aministration (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 34 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Other Modules (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 35 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Ecosystem (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 36 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Tutoring Services (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 37 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Testing Organizations (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 38 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Software Providers (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 39 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Proctoring Services (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 40 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Payment Gateway Providers (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 41 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Hosting Service Providers (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 42 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Content Providers (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 43 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Content Delivery Networks (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 44 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Colocation Services (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 45 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Authoring Tool Providers (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 46 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Accreditation Providers (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 47 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Equipment Providers (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 48 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Enclosures (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 49 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Professional Development Units (PDUs) (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 50 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Servers (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 51 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Other Ecosystems (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 52 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Application (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 53 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Virtual Instructor Training (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 54 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Technology Training (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 55 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Distance Learning (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 56 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By End User (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 57 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Corporate (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 58 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Telecommunications (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 59 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Software and Technology (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 60 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 61 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Scientific Research (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 62 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Retail (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 63 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Private Organizations (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 64 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Pharmaceuticals (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 65 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Manufacturing (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 66 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Large Enterprises (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 67 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By IT (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 68 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Hospitality (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 69 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Higher Education (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 70 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Healthcare (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 71 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Entertainment and Media (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 72 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Consulting (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 73 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Biopharma (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 74 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Banking, Financial Services and Insurance (BFSI) (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 75 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Government and Defense (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 76 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Other Corportes (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 77 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Academic (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 78 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By Higher Education (2016-2026) (US $MN)
  • 79 Global Learning Management System (LMS) Market Outlook, By K-12 (2016-2026) (US $MN)

NOTE: Tables for North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America and Middle East & Africa are represented in the same manner above.