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市场调查报告书

锂离子电池与今后发展

Lithium Ion Batteries and Beyond

出版商 Total Battery Consulting 商品编码 356298
出版日期 内容信息 英文
商品交期: 最快1-2个工作天内
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锂离子电池与今后发展 Lithium Ion Batteries and Beyond
出版日期: 2017年02月06日 内容信息: 英文
简介

本报告提供全世界的高级电池的R&D活动调查分析,以有潜力材料及电池技术为焦点,提供系统性信息。

第1章 简介

第2章 阳极材料

  • 锂离子电池材料的简介
  • 碳质·石墨阳极材料
  • 碳质·石墨阳极材料的替代品
  • 预锂化·其他手段

第3章 阴极

  • 简介:阴极材料的分类
  • 阴极材料的合成
  • 阴极 vs. 阳极材料:容量平衡
  • 层状的阴极材料
  • 其他阴极材料
  • 复合阴极,摘要
  • 阳极材料·阴极的相互作用

第4章 电解质

  • 液状有机·溶剂型电解质的结构
  • 导电率与传达机构
  • 电解质的稳定与相间 (SEI,CEI) 形成
  • SEI·CEI分析
  • SEI形成溶剂与电解质添加剂
  • 电解质盐:LiPF6
  • 离子液体 (IL)

第5章 惰性材料

  • 活性·惰性材料概要
  • 分离器
  • 电流收集器
  • 黏合剂
  • 导电性电极添加剂

第6章 超越锂离子电池

  • 锂离子后,锂离子前,与锂离子电池并行
  • 高能量密度 (「超级」) 电池的做法
  • 比能源 vs. 能量密度
  • 锂/硫磺化学
  • 锂/大气化学
  • 固体电解质:高分子·陶瓷
  • 替代化学物质:Na,Na-离子,Mg,Al,双重离子

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目录

This unique report evaluates advanced battery R&D work across the globe and highlights the most promising materials and cell technologies that will enable advances in battery technology and, with it, market expansion.

A critical assessment of what is in the research labs, what is likely to make it to the market, and why.

Benefits

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Automakers, utility / industrial system integrators:

Consult the Report's critical review of future cell chemistry and material R&D to advance your planning and roadmaps.

Battery producers:

Use this all-inclusive assessment of the challenges associated with new cell chemistries and materials to better calibrate your development work.

Material developers / producers:

Benefit from this unbiased expert assessment of what is in the pipeline to sharpen your development strategy and funnel your R&D investment into the most promising technologies.

Corporate and financial investors:

Gain insights into the future of battery cell materials and chemistry to guide your investment decisions.


Table of Contents

I. Introduction

1. General principles

  • Materials are the Core of the Battery
  • Numerous Combinations of Anode, Cathode, and Electrolyte Materials are Possible
  • The First Pre-Requisite for High-Energy-Density Batteries: High Voltage plus Materials with High Capacity and Low Mass
  • The Origin of High Cell Voltage: Chemistry Tells Us ⇒ Need Opposites to Store Lots of Energy
  • Large Potential Difference Between Cathode and Anode Results in High Cell Voltage
  • Electron Conductor (= Electrode) Immersed into Ion Conducting Medium (= Electrolyte)
  • Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB): Active and Inactive Materials
  • Batteries: Electron and Ion Transfer between the Electrodes are Separated
  • Electron and Ion Conduction in Battery Electrode Materials
  • Electron and Ion Conduction in Battery Electrode Materials (Case 1)
  • Electron and Ion Conduction in Battery Electrode Materials (Case 2)
  • Electron and Ion Conduction in Battery Electrode Materials (Case 3)
  • Electron and Ion Conduction in Battery Electrode Materials (Case 4)
  • Electron and Ion Conduction in Battery Electrode Materials: Overview
  • Active Materials in (Rechargeable) Batteries

2. Li-metal chemistry-the ancestor of Lithium Ion

  • Metallic Li and Li+-Ion Storage Materials: Why Li Metal? Why Lithium Ion?
  • 1st Ancestor of Lithium-Ion Cells: Li-Metal Battery Technology
  • High Energy of Solvation of Li+ Causes Li Electrode Potential to be Highly Negative
  • Small Li+-Ion Radius
  • The SEI: The Key to Lithium-Metal Batteries
  • SEI: Terminology
  • Summary: Why Lithium?
  • On the Search for Substrates for Li Deposition: Alloying/Intercalation of Li into Metals/ (Graphitic) Carbon as Side Reaction
  • Li/TiS2 and LiAl/TiS2 Rechargeable Cell EXXON (70ies)
  • Li/MoS2 Rechargeable Cell Moli Energy (80ies)
  • Cell Design for Li/MoS2 System
  • The Rechargeable Lithium Metal Trauma: Beginning in 1989...Still Existent Today
  • Rechargeable Li-Metal Cell: High Energy Density, but Dendrite Risk, ⇒ Safety Problem
  • Solution: Insertion/Intercalation Anode: Li+ Ion Storage and SEI are Locally Separated

3. Lithium-Ion design overview

  • Active and Inactive Materials in LIB Cells
  • Composite Electrodes: Made from Powdery Materials and Binder Coated on a Current Collector
  • The Lithium-Ion Advantage Variability ⇒ Numerous Material Combinations ⇒ Tailored Solutions
  • Lithium-Ion Batteries: Enabled by the Electrolyte/Separator
  • 2nd Ancestor of Lithium-Ion Cell: HSO4-Ion Transfer Cell Based on 2 Graphite Electrodes (1938)
  • A Drawback of Li Storage Materials: Capacity Dilution by Host Material
  • Limitations of Li+-Insertion Materials: Limited Li+-Ion Transport Rates
  • Common Knowledge: There are Rechargeable Batteries with Higher Capacity than LIB; but always Lower Specific Energy
  • '4V' Lithium-Ion Batteries: Electrolyte Reduction and Oxidation
  • High-Voltage Batteries Need Thermodynamically and/or Kinetically Stable Electrolytes
  • Battery Voltages and Electrolyte Stability: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Stability
  • From 1791 Until Today ⇒ From Aqueous to Non-Aqueous Electrolytes ⇒ From 1 V to >5 V Batteries

4. Battery design trade-offs and limitations

  • Why a Battery Cannot Outperform the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)
  • Gasoline vs. Li: A Comparison of Combustion Mechanisms
  • Why a Battery Cannot Outperform the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)
  • Theor. Specific Energies (kWh/kg) of Li/Air and Gasoline-Air Systems With/Without Regarding the Weight of the Reaction Products
  • 'Good' and 'Bad' Battery Materials
  • 'Good Nano'
  • 'Bad Nano'
  • Multiple Requirements on Battery Materials
  • Battery Material Design is Complex - Example: Active Materials
  • Systemic Approach: Balance of Properties

II. Anodes

1. Introduction to Lithium-Ion battery materials

  • LIBs, Made from Materials
  • Material Mapping via Potential vs. Capacity Plots
  • Li-Metal Battery and LIB: State of the Art
  • Balance of Cathode vs. Anode; Wh/kg & Wh/L: LiCoNiO2 vs. Graphite
  • LIB: Possibilities for Further Development
  • There are Numerous Anode Materials for/in Lithium-Ion Batteries
  • Different Lithiation Reaction Mechanisms Result in Two Extreme Performance Patterns

2. Carbonaceous and graphitic anodes

  • Carbons - Major Anode Material
  • Manufacturing of Graphites: Natural and Synthetic
  • Manufacturing of Synthetic Graphite
  • Graphitic Carbons
  • Amorphous (Hard) Carbons
  • How to Increase Anode Rate Capability while Keeping High Li Storage Capacity ⇒ Core/Shell Carbons
  • Monitoring of Carbon Properties: Purity, Uniformity & Physical Properties
  • Graphite Particle Shape and Morphology - Examples
  • Irreversible Capacity, Reversible Capacity, and Coulombic Efficiency
  • Ternary Graphite Intercalation Compounds (Li+(solv)yCn) vs. Binary Intercalation Compounds (LiCn)
  • Antidote vs. Solvent Co-Intercalation: Electrolyte Additive!

3. Alternatives to carbonaceous and graphitic anodes

  • Overview
  • Alternatives to Carbonaceous and Graphitic Anodes
  • The Always First Look at Anode Materials: Capacity!
  • A Second Look, Also Important: Abundance and Costs
  • Comparison of Anode Materials: Operation Potentials
  • Capacity AND De-Lithiation Potential: Impact on Specific Energy
  • Comparison of Anode Materials: Coulombic Efficiency (CE), Voltage Efficiency (VE) and Energy Efficiency (EE)
  • Determination of Energy Efficiency (EE) of Anode (Graphite) and Cathode (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4)
  • Efficient Storage and Re-Use of Electricity
  • Lithium-Storage Metals and Alloys
  • Lithium-Storage Metals and Alloys ⇒ Li Alloys
  • Lithium-Storage Metals: Gravimetric and Volumetric Capacities
  • Charging of Li-Storage Metals and Carbon
  • Volume and Structural Changes
  • Key Challenges with Li-Storage Metals
  • The Established Solution, Part I: Nano-Structures
  • Nano-Structured ≠ Nano-Sized
  • The Established Solution, Part II: Multiphases and Composites
  • Combination of Small Particle Size and Multiphase/Composite Morphologies
  • Pure Metal vs. Intermetallic vs. Multiphase Composite: Sn vs. SnSb vs. Sn/SnSb
  • Tin Oxides (Fuji Photo Film, 1995)
  • Differences in SEI Stability During Cycling
  • Apart from Material Structure Measures: What can be done?
  • Example for Electrode Measures: Si/C Composite Electrodes: Cu Foil vs. 3D Current Collector
  • Today: Silicon Everywhere
  • Summary: Strategies to Improve the Performance of Lithium-Storage Metals and Alloys
  • Effect of Si Addition to a Graphite Anode with Regard to Balancing in the Cell
  • Metal Oxides
  • Metal Oxides - Insertion and Conversion Materials
  • Lithium Titanate - LTO
  • Metal Oxides - Insertion and Conversion Materials

4. Pre-lithiation and other measures to compensate for Cirr

  • Overcoming the Low Coulombic Efficiency and High 1st Cycle Irreversible Capacities (Cirr) of Li-Storage Metals and Conversion Materials
  • Pre-Lithiation and Other Measures to Compensate for Cirr
  • Capacity AND De-Lithiation Potential: Impact on Specific Energy With and Without Pre-Lithiation

III. Cathodes

1. Introduction: cathode materials classification

  • Cathode Materials for/in Li Cells: Classification According to Charging Voltage, Structure and Li-Storage Mechanism
  • LIB Cathode Materials: Abbreviations and Terms as Used in the Literature
  • LIB Cathode Materials: Present and Future Materials Rely Mainly on Three Different Structure Types
  • Cathode Materials for/in Lithium-Ion Cells: Voltage Profiles of Cathode Materials

2. Synthesis of cathode materials

  • General Synthesis Methods (There are Additional Derivative Methods)
  • Annealing, Pellets, Quenching
  • Example for Precursor and Synthesis Optimization: Advancing LiMn2O4 (LMO): GEN 1 ⇒ GEN 2
  • How to Get a Better (But Also More Complicated) Cathode Material

3. Cathode vs. anode: capacity balancing

  • Li-Metal Battery and LIB: State of the Art
  • Typically, Anode has Higher Capacity than Cathode: Balance of Specific Capacities of Cathode vs. Anode: ⇒ Wh/kg
  • Balance of Cathode vs. Anode: ⇒ Wh/kg and Wh/L - LiCoNiO2 vs. Graphite
  • Balance of Cathode vs. Anode: ⇒ Wh/kg and Wh/L - LiNiCoO2 vs. Si
  • Balance of Cathode vs. Anode: ⇒ Wh/kg and Wh/L - LiFePO4 vs. Graphite
  • Optimization of Cell Capacity by Enhancement of Anode AND Cathode Capacity
  • Balance of Cathode vs. Anode: ⇒ Mass vs. Volume Considerations
  • LIB: Possibilities for Further Development

4. Layered cathode materials

  • The Starting Point: LiCoO2 (LCO)
  • LiCoO2 (LCO): ▶Theoretical vs. Practical Capacity ▶Comparison with LiNiO2 (LNO)
  • Trend in Layered Cathode Materials: ▶Stabilization vs. Overcharge and Thermal Instability ▶Reduction of Co Content for Cost Reasons
  • Layered Ni-rich NCM622 and NCM811 - LiNixxMn1-x/2Co1-x/2O2 with x ≥ 0.6
  • Optimized synthesis ⇒ Small Li+/Ni2+ Cation Mixing ⇒ Better Rate Capability
  • Electrochemical Performance of NCM811
  • High-Voltage Application of NCM ⇒ Metal Dissolution Depends on the Applied Potential (Data at Room Temperature)
  • Negative Influence of Dissolved Metal Cations on Electrochemical Performance
  • Commercialized for a Long Time, Still High Impact: LiNiCoAlO2 (LNCA or NCA)
  • Surface Modification of LNCA = Purification ⇒ Power Capability
  • Coating of LNCA ⇒ Reduced Reactivity and thus Better Safety
  • Coating of LNCA with LNCM ⇒ Better Safety
  • Paradox: How to Get More ACTIVE Redox Capacity (= Discharge Capacity) with Redox-INACTIVE Dopants?
  • Lithium-Rich and Mn-Rich 'Layered-Layered' Cathode, HE-NCM, LMNC
  • Li-Rich Cathode is Charged to High Voltage
  • Challenges and Opportunities of 'Lithium-Rich' Cathodes
  • Numerous Challenges Need to be Overcome: Li-Mn-O Cathode Materials

5. Other cathode materials

  • Lithium Manganese Oxide - LMO
  • LiMn2O4 (LMO): Theory and Application
  • LMO with Improved High Temperature Performance
  • LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 - LNMO, THE High Voltage Cathode
  • Lithium Iron Phosphate - LFP
  • LiFePO4: Back to the Iron Age?
  • Thermal Stability of Charged Cathode Materials
  • High-Voltage Lithium Metal Phosphates - LMPO, LCPO
  • High-Capacity Cathodes for Li-Ion: Li2FeSiO4
  • High-Capacity Cathodes for Li-Ion: Organic Li+-Materials

6. Composite cathodes & summary

  • Combinations of Cathode Materials
  • Physical Blends
  • LIB Cathodes: Summary
  • Cathode Chemistries: Comparison

7. Mutual anode-cathode influence

  • Common Knowledge: 1st Cycle Capacity Losses Depend on the BET Surface Area of the Graphite Anode
  • Both Graphite Anode and LNCM Cathode Show Capacity Losses
  • 1st Cycle Capacity Losses and BET Surface Area: Li/Graphite Half Cell vs. NCM/Graphite Full Cell
  • The Daily Life of a Lithium-Ion Cell: LiCoO2 (LCO) vs. Graphite
  • Over-Charge in a LCO-Based Lithium-Ion Cell
  • Anode (C) ↔ Cathode (LCO) Communication
  • Full Cell: Capacity Loss at the Anode Leads to Overcharge at the Cathode
  • Design of Experiment
  • Influence of Surface Area of the Graphite Anode on the LCO Cathode Performance
  • Differences in SEI Stability During Cycling
  • Si vs. C Anode : Influence of Different SEI Stabilities on LCO Performance
  • The Anode Gets the Sniffles, but the Cathode Gets the Flu

IV. Electrolytes

1. Composition of liquid organic-solvent-based electrolytes

  • Electrolytes for/in Lithium-Ion and Lithium Batteries
  • Liquid Non-Aqueous Electrolytes Mostly Organic-Solvent-Based
  • Liquid Electrolytes: Numerous, Almost Uncountable Components
  • Performance Requirements Narrow the Number of Practical Components
  • Non-Aqueous Liquid Organic Electrolytes

2. Conductivity and transport mechanism

  • Electrolyte Conductivity: Salt Selection
  • Electrolyte Conductivity: Solvent Selection
  • Transport Mechanism of Liquid Electrolytes in Comparison to Polymeric and Ceramic Solid Electrolytes
  • Search For 'Single Li+-Ion Conductors'

3. Electrolyte stability and interphase (SEI, CEI) formation

  • '4V' and '5V' Lithium Ion: Decomposition of Organic-Solvent-Based Electrolytes
  • Anode SEI & Cathode CEI
  • High-Voltage Batteries Need Thermodynamically and/or Kinetically Stable Electrolytes
  • Battery Voltages and Electrolyte Stability: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Stability

4. SEI and CEI analysis

  • Thermodynamic Oxidation and Reduction Stabilities of Electrolyte Components
  • HV Stable Electrolytes Enabling High Potentials at the Cathode: Thermodynamic vs. Kinetic Approach
  • HV Stable Electrolytes: Enabling Low Potentials at the Anode - Kinetic Stability ⇒ SEI Formation
  • The Challenge: Oxidation-Stable Electrolytes
  • Combined Analytical Efforts in Battery (Materials) Analytics
  • Analysis ⇒ Understanding ⇒ Improvement
  • Different Effects of Various Electrolyte Decomposition Products on Cell Performance

5. SEI forming solvents and electrolyte additives

  • Example for SEI Enhancer: SEI-Forming Solvents, e.g. Partially Fluorinated Solvents
  • Example for SEI Enhancer: Polymerizable Electrolyte Additives as SEI Enhancer at the Anode
  • Electrolyte Additives Make the Difference in Liquid Organic Electrolytes
  • Electrolyte Additives for Safety Enhancement
  • Electrolyte Additives for Safety Enhancement (Cont'd)
  • Over-Charge in a LIB Cell ⇒ Multiple Reactions Severely Deteriorating Performance and Safety

6. The electrolyte salt: LiPF6

  • A Major Source of/for Electrolyte Decomposition -The Electrolyte Salt LiPF6
  • LiPF6-Based Electrolytes: There Are More Toxic Compounds Than HF
  • Organosphosphates (OPs) React with Enzymes ⇒ Amount and Toxic Hazard to be Determined
  • Limitations of Liquid Organic Electrolytes - Liquid Solvents

7. Ionic Liquids (ILs)

  • What are Ionic Liquids?
  • Ionic Liquids for High-Voltage Electrochemical Devices
  • The Electrolyte: The "Elixir of Life" of a Battery Cell

V. Inactive Materials

1. Overview of active and inactive materials

  • Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB): Active and Inactive Materials
  • 18650: A Standard Cylindrical Cell - Notebook Computers and Power Tools
  • Mass Distribution in an 18650 Cell - 5 Main Groups of Components
  • Mass Distribution in an 18650 Cell - Component Details
  • Mass Distribution in an 18650 cell - Summary: Active vs. Inactive Materials
  • Mass Distribution in an 18650 Cell - Lithium Ion Battery is a "Sham"
  • 3.1-Ah 18650 Cylindrical Consumer Cell: Material Costs
  • 56-Ah Pouch EV Cell Material Costs
  • 5-Ah HEV Cell, 200k Packs per Year - Material Costs

2. Separators

  • Overview
  • Separators for/in Lithium-Ion Batteries
  • Separator types
  • Separator types
  • PE separators
  • Polyolefin Separator: Prepared by Wet Processing
  • Polyolefin Separators: Celgard
  • Special separators: Tri-layer and ceramic
  • Special Separators, Shut-Down Separators
  • Special Separators: Ceramic Separators
  • Separator Demands: Issues, Accomplishments and To-dos
  • Separators - USABC Requirements for LIB Separators
  • Separators - Definitions / Explanations
  • Heat-resistant layer
  • Alternatives to Ceramic Separators: Heat Resistant Layer (HRL) on the Electrode
  • Safety considerations from the material side
  • Is a Systematic Approach to Lithium-Ion Cell Safety Possible?
  • The Fire Tetrahedron in a Lithium-Ion Cell - Materials View
  • The Fire Tetrahedron in a Lithium-Ion Cell - Materials View: Countermeasures

3. Current collectors

  • Composite Electrode Components
  • Current Collectors
  • Current Collectors: Requirements for LIB
  • Li Reaction with Current Collectors: An Issue Since the Beginning of Li Batteries
  • Stability of the Cu Current Collector: Dissolution During Over-Discharge
  • Stability of the Al Current Collector: Anodic Oxidation and Dissolution; Depending on the Electrolyte Salt

4. Binders

  • Binders (electrode glue)
  • The polymer binder in the electrode works as a flexible adhesive, a link between the electrode particles as well as between the particles and the current collector
  • Key Requirements of Binders for LIBs as Materials Themselves
  • Binders - Key Attributes During Processing
  • Most Prominent Binders
  • The Type of Binder Determines Processing Stability and Binder Distribution
  • Binder Processing
  • Binder Reactivity with Electrode Materials

5. Conductive electrode additives

  • Conductive Electrode Additives
  • Introduction: Carbon Black (CB)
  • Basic Properties of Carbon Black
  • SE Micrographs of LFP Electrodes with Different CBs
  • Conductive Coating (⇒ Short Range Contact) Conductive Additive (⇒ Long Range Contact)
  • Where Electrolyte Reactions Take Place, e.g., Cathode Side
  • High Voltage Cathodes (ca. >4.5 V vs. Li/Li+): Anion Intercalation into Carbon!
  • Different Functions of Conductive Carbons at 4.0V and 5.0V Charge of the LIB
  • LIB Reactions between 0.0V up to 6.0V vs. Li/Li+

VI. Beyond Lithium-Ion Batteries

1. Beyond Lithium Ion, before Lithium Ion, parallel to Lithium Ion

  • How Much Energy is 1 (one) kWh?
  • Post Lithium-Ion (PLIB), Before Lithium-Ion, and Parallel to Lithium-Ion Batteries
  • Terminology: Post Lithium Ion (PLIB), Before Lithium Ion, Parallel to Lithium Ion

2. How to make high-energy-density ("super") batteries?

  • The First Pre-Requisite for High-Energy Batteries: High Voltage plus Materials with High Capacity and Low Mass
  • Large Potential Difference Between Cathode and Anode Results in High Cell Voltage
  • The Standard: Non-Aqueous Liquid Organic Electrolytes
  • Electrolyte Stability in "4V" and "5V" LIBs: ⇒ Electrolyte Reduction and Oxidation
  • Specific Capacity in Ah/kg: Active and Inactive Materials in LIBs
  • 18650: A Standard Cylindrical Cell: Notebook Computers and Power Tools
  • Mass Distribution in an 18650 cell: 5 Main Groups of Components
  • Mass Distribution in an 18650 cell: Component Details
  • Mass Distribution in an 18650 cell: Summary: Active vs. Inactive Materials
  • Mass Distribution in an 18650 Cell: Lithium-Ion Battery is "Sham"
  • Material Mapping via Potential vs. Capacity Plots
  • Li-Metal Battery and LIB: State of the Art
  • Balance of Cathode vs. Anode; Wh/kg & Wh/L: LiCoNiO2 vs. Graphite
  • LIB: Possibilities for Further Development
  • Li-Metal Battery: Standard in Primary (Non-Rechargeable) Applications
  • Lithium-Metal Rechargeable Batteries; New Options: Sulfur and Oxygen (Air)

3. Specific energy vs. energy density: A necessary look at new cell chemistries

  • Material Mapping: Volumetric (Ah/L) and Specific Capacities (Ah/kg)
  • LIB: Possibilities for Further Development
  • Installation Space: Volumetric Capacities
  • LIB und PLIB: Volumetric Capacities
  • Energy Density vs. Specific Energy: Cell & System Level (Lit. Data, Practical Values)

4. Lithium/sulfur chemistry

  • Lithium/Sulfur: Not so Simple
  • Li/S: Capacity Fade in the 1st 50 -100 Cycles
  • Li/S (and Li/Air) Need New Electrode, Cell and Battery System Designs in Addition to Improved Cell Chemistries
  • Shape Change at the Lithium Anode
  • Shape Change at the Sulfur Cathode
  • Polysulfides Li2Sx (x = 2, 4, 6, 8): More Challenges than Advantages
  • Li/S (and Li/Air) at the Anode Side? Dynamic Interface with the Electrolyte

5. Lithium/air chemistry

  • Metal/Air Batteries: Even More Complicated
  • Theoretical Specific Energies of Metal/Air Cells in Comparison
  • Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Li/Air Cell
  • Li/Air: New Electrolytes are Needed
  • 'Artificial' vs. Natural SEI: for Li-S, Li-Air Cells and More?
  • A Way Out of the Dilemma? Protected Li Metal Anodes
  • Li/Air Cells with Various Electrolytes and with a Solid Electrolyte (SE) Membrane: Overview
  • Li/Air Cells with Various Electrolytes and with a Solid Electrolyte Membrane: a) Non-Aqueous Li/Air Cell; No SE
  • Li/Air Cells with Various Electrolytes and with a Solid Electrolyte Membrane: b) Aqueous Li/Air Cell
  • Li/Air Cells with Various Electrolytes and with a Solid Electrolyte Membrane: c) Hybrid Li/Air Cell
  • Li/Air Cells with Various Electrolytes and with a Solid Electrolyte Membrane: d) All Solid State Li/Air Cell

6. Solid electrolytes: polymeric and ceramic

  • Beyond Liquid Organic-Solvent-Based Electrolytes
  • Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Electrochemical Properties LE vs. SE
  • Cell Manufacturing: LE vs. SE
  • State of the Art and Challenges of Solid Electrolytes
  • Solid Electrolytes: Polymer Electrolytes
  • Solid Electrolytes with Glassy or Ceramic Composition
  • Conductance (S) vs. Conductivity (S/cm)
  • Processing Routes ⇒ Solid Electrolyte Battery Manufacturing
  • Specific Energy (Wh/kg) Considerations: Liquid Electrolyte (LE) vs. Solid Electrolyte (SE) Cells and Packs
  • Cost of Li-Metal Anode / SE Cells

7. Alternative chemistries: Na, Na-Ion, Mg, Al, Dual-Ion

  • Why Alternative Anodes: Abundance Reasons
  • Alternative Metal Anodes: Specific Capacities
  • Alternative Metal Anodes: Volumetric Capacities
  • Summary: Why Alternative Anodes?
  • The SEI: The Key to Metal Batteries
  • Aqueous Metal/Air Batteries: ⇒ Zn/Air Batteries as Prominent Example
  • Volta-Pile (1800): First Practical Battery Ever; Is Actually a Metal/Air Battery
  • Rechargeable Alkaline Electrolyte Zinc/Air Battery (= 'Zinc/Air Fuel Cell')
  • Na/Air and Na-Ion Battery (NIB) Chemistries
  • Multi-Valent Cation Battery Chemistries: (Be2+), Mg2+, (Ca2+), and Al3+
  • Non-aq. Electrolyte Magnesium Battery Chemistries
  • Efficient Storage and Re-Use of Electricity
  • Aluminum/Air Battery
  • Dual-Ion Battery Chemistries
  • Thinking in Generations and Roadmaps
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